Immunomodulation-Related Drugs and the Use of Ruqyah Sharia as Immunomodulation

By Masood Saeed 25 July 2023


Immunomodulation refers to the process of modifying the immune system's activity to achieve a desired therapeutic effect. Various pharmaceutical drugs have been developed to target specific components of the immune system and regulate its responses. Additionally, in some cultural and religious practises, alternative methods like Ruqyah Sharia are believed to possess immunomodulatory properties. This article explores immunomodulation-related drugs and the potential role of Ruqyah Sharia in modulating the immune system.

1. Immunomodulation-Related Drugs:

a. Corticosteroids: Corticosteroids are widely used immunomodulatory drugs that suppress inflammation by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines and immune cell activation [1]. They are commonly prescribed to treat autoimmune conditions, allergic reactions, and inflammatory disorders.

b. Immunosuppressants: Immunosuppressants, such as cyclosporine and methotrexate, are drugs that dampen the immune system's response, making them essential for preventing organ rejection after transplants and managing autoimmune diseases [2].

c. Interleukin Inhibitors: Interleukins play a crucial role in immune signalling. Drugs like adalimumab and tocilizumab target specific interleukins, providing effective treatment for autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis [3].

d. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: Immune checkpoint inhibitors, like pembrolizumab and nivolumab, block certain inhibitory pathways in T-cells, enhancing the immune system's ability to target and destroy cancer cells [4].

2. Ruqyah Sharia as Immunomodulation:

Ruqyah Sharia is an Islamic spiritual healing practise involving the recitation of specific Quranic verses and supplications to seek protection and healing from various ailments, including physical and psychological conditions. While the concept of using Ruqyah for immunomodulation lacks extensive scientific evidence, proponents believe that the practise may exert positive effects on the immune system through spiritual and psychological means.

The potential immunomodulatory effects of Ruqyah Sharia can be attributed to several factors:

a. Stress Reduction: Stress and negative emotions have been linked to immune system dysregulation [5]. Engaging in religious practises like Ruqyah, which promote feelings of comfort and spiritual connection, may help reduce stress and indirectly support immune function.

b. Placebo Effect: The placebo effect can trigger significant physiological responses, including immune system changes [6]. The belief in the effectiveness of Ruqyah as a healing practise could potentially elicit a placebo response that impacts the immune system.

c. Psychological Well-being: Positive psychological states, like hope and optimism, have been associated with better immune responses [7]. Engaging in Ruqyah Sharia may foster a sense of hope and emotional well-being, which could influence the immune system positively.


Immunomodulation is a vital aspect of medical treatment, and various pharmaceutical drugs have been developed to target the immune system for therapeutic purposes. While the scientific evidence supporting the immunomodulatory effects of Ruqyah Sharia is limited, the practise's spiritual and psychological aspects may have indirect influences on the immune system. Further research is needed to explore the potential benefits of integrating complementary and alternative practises like Ruqyah Sharia with conventional immunomodulatory therapies.


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2. Kaplan, M. J., & Sadeghi, M. M. (2021). Immunomodulators, Immunostimulants, and Immunosuppressants. In Rheumatology Secrets (pp. 18–25). Elsevier.

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5. Dantzer, R., Cohen, S., Russo, S. J., & Dinan, T. G. (2018). Resilience and immunity. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 74, 28–42.

6. Geers, A. L., Wellman, J. A., Fowler, S. L., Helfer, S. G., & France, C. R. (2010). Dispositional optimism predicts placebo analgesia. The Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society, 11(11), 1165–1171.

7. Segerstrom, S. C., & Sephton, S. E. (2010). Optimistic expectancies and cell-mediated immunity: the role of positive affect: The role of positive affect. Psychological Science, 21(3), 448–455.

Updated: 25/07/2023

Written: Raqi Saeed